6. Conclusion

The new teaching is to arrange situations to enable learning

Teaching, as an activity, can be either effective or not when student’s learning is concerned. If the teaching act is student-directed, it should adequately influence learning process that is happening in the learner. For desired learning to take place, all teaching functions (effects) should be realized. Six basic functions of teaching should be considered:

  1. Student’s motivation. Motivation is essential for learning to take place. The learner has to be ready to receive the presented information.
  2. Adequate input of information. Input of information is essential in order to teach something. The incoming information must not overload short-term memory, because the informational flow has to allow making the relationships between old and new bodies of information and within the new one.
  3. Securing time and space for information processing. The implicitly given information has to be made explicit, so the construction of learner’s original body of information can take place.
  4. Storing and retrieving of information. Some information will be stored and made retrievable for later use. Memorization is achieved by rehearsing and by linking new information with already stored information.
  5. Securing applicability of knowledge. The reason for learning is the application of knowledge in solving problem in future practice. Transfer of knowledge to new problem engages generalization of general principles to a pertinent problem, and competence of comparisons between different situations. So the students should be given the chance, early in their study, to practice arts of generalization and comparison in solving problems.
  6. Monitoring of students activities. Finally, the learner’s activities need to be controlled and, if necessary, directed.

Combination of different teaching methods can produce quality in fulfilling all teaching functions. Basic teaching sequence is successively repeated and in designing the teaching process different student’s needs should be taken into consideration. The optimal amount of elaboration and need for decision making differs between students. Engaging of different teaching methods for achieving the same teaching objective is recommended. Teaching methods can be classified from low to high structured according to their levels of elaboration (amount of teaching acts) and the number of decisions to be made by the students. High structured settings are usually more favorable for students low in aptitude and with low prerequisite knowledge, while students high in aptitude learn more efficiently under low structure settings then under high structure settings. Keeping high structured situation, in which everything is determined by the teacher, can prolong student’s dependence on the teacher. Time consuming lectures can provide situation of big input without adequate output. Sandwich principle is designed in order to coordinate way of presentation of information with different student’s needs in target group of students. Consequently, the teaching efficacy will be better. Interchange of phases of collective and individual learning takes place, with especial concerns given to securing student’s attention in the beginning phase and fostering applicability of knowledge in the finishing phase of sandwich. Design of the sandwich can be made according to teacher’s own preferences and specific needs of the material that will be presented.

Every learner learns on his/her own unique way and strategy. The learning is taking place with an individual speed, depending on student’s attitude and level of prerequisite knowledge. In designing the teaching process, teacher should take into consideration differences among the students in the target group. Enough of space must be provided for processing and memorizing the presented information. Paradoxically, when this is not enabled learning success can be less satisfactory even with bigger input of information in the same time.

Picture 1: The structure of a “sandwich-architecture”.